Amelioration of the adverse effects of thiram by 24-epibrassinolide in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.)
Keywords:Fungicide, brassinosteroid, chlorophyll, oxidative stress, pesticide detoxification enzyme
- Intensive of pesticides negatively affects plant growth and yield. There is insufficient information on the negative effects of the dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram which is widely used in agricultural applications, and how these effects can be improved.
- The effects of the plant hormone 24-epibrassinolide on thiram induced-stress in tomatoes were investigated. Photosynthetic pigment contents, oxidative stress indicators, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and pesticide detoxification enzymes were analyzed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).
- 24-epibrassinolide significantly reduced the adverse effects of thiram.
- 24-epibrassinolide application to plants against pesticide toxicity has the potential to improve crop yield and production.
Abstract: This study investigated thiram fungicide-induced-stress effects in tomato plants and the possible protective role of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) in response to thiram (tetramethyl thiuram disulfide) toxicity. Tomato seedlings pretreated with 0, 10-11, 10-9 and 10-7 M 24-EBL were treated with 6.6 mM thiram. Tomato leaves harvested 5 and 11 days after thiram treatment (DAT) were used for analysis. Thiram application caused oxidative stress by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels, whereas the chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid amounts and total protein content decreased. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased in the thiram-treated tomato plants on DAT 5 and 11 while pesticide detoxification enzymes (peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) activities increased. The thiram-induced oxidative stress was alleviated after pretreatments with different concentrations of 24-EBL. The hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels decreased and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments and total protein content increased after 24-EBL pretreatments. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pesticide detoxification enzymes further increased as the concentration of 24-EBL decreased in tomato under thiram stress, and the most effective concentration was determined as 10-11 M 24-EBL. The results suggested that 24-EBL could effectively alleviate thiram-induced phytotoxicity in tomato plants.
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